Northern Ireland

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Kauno “Versmės” vidurinės mokyklosReferatas:“Northern Ireland”darbą atliko:1997KaunasThe province of Northern Ireland (sometimes called ‘Ulster’) consists of six counties: Antrim, Down, Armagh, Tyrone, Fermanagh and Londonderry. Belfast is the capital city. The province is surrounded by sea to the north and east, by the Republican counties of Donegal to the west and Canavan and Monaghan to the south. The troublesWhen trouble started in Northern Ireland in the late 1960s it took many people by surprise. However the violence and suffering which Northern Ireland has been experiencing are simply the latest events in an old story which began long ago. Reformation and PlantationThe history of Anglo - Irish relations began with the colonization of Ireland by the Normans under Henry II of England in the 12th century. Over the next two centuries these Norman settlers became ‘ more Irish than the Irish’, and it is possible that Ireland might have ended up as a contected Anglo - Irish society under the British Crown. However, in the 16 th century Henry VIII quarrelled with Rome and declared himself head of the Anglican Church. Resistance from Irish Catholics was strong but was put down by Henry’s armies. And so by trying to force Irish Catholics to become Anglican and by taking a lot of their land, Henry began the two lasting problems of Anglo - Irish relations - religion and land. What he started was continued by his daughter Elizabeth I. Ulster was a specially difficult area to bring under her rule. The soldiers of the province of Ulster successfully fought against Elizabeth’s armies until 1603, but were finally defeated. Then the ‘Plantation of Ulster’ began. ‘Plantation’ meant that twenty - three new towns were built in Ulster to protect the needs of 170 000 new, Protestant settlers known as ‘planters’, most of whom came from Scotland. This policy of plantation soon changed the structure of society in Ulster. FamineNo event in Irish history has had a deeper effect on Irish national feeling than the Great Famine of 1845 - 9. In the 19th century most of the Irish depended on agriculture - indeed, most of them depended on simple potato - farming for their survival. The poor peasants made their living from tiny pieces of land and had to pay high rents for his land. Potatoes were their main food and when the potatoes harvest was bad for four years in succession, there was a terrible famine in the countr