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Decentralization Is the transfer of power from central government to the low level of administration. It is a transfer of authority to the representative and downwardly accountable actors such as elected local government."According to crook and Manor (1998), decentralizatioan refered to transifer of power from central government to lower level in a political administrative and territorial hierarchy." Accordind to Sayer et al the term decentralization is used to cover a broad range of transfer of the locus of decision making from central government to regional, municipal or local government.Governance refers to how political power is exercised to manage nation affairs. According to world bank governance refer to the use of power in the management of country economic and social resources for management.Good governance according to Etounge Mangwella 1991 ''it implies presence of rule of law, safeguard of human right and existence of honest and efficient government, accountability, transparent, predictability and openness.''According to Micheael Johnson (2004) g00d governance is a competent management of a country resources and affair in manner that is open, transparent, accountable, equitable, and responsive to people needs.'' A good local government is ought to ensure effective and efficient, participation, accountability, transparent, inclusive and it should follow the rules of law.There are different form of decentralization such as deconcentralization, delegation, devolution and privatization. Deconcentalization is the transfer of administrative responsibility for specified function to lower level within the central government bureaucracy, generally on some spatial bases there decision are done by the central government. Deligation is the transfer of managenal responsibility for a specified function to another public organization outside normal central government control whether provincial or local government or parastatal agencies. Example management of university.Devolution ; transfer of responsibility for specified function to sub national level either public or privately owned, that are largely outside the direct control of the central government. It is the most genuine form.Privatization is a form of devolution to private ownership that has become prominent in recent time such as how people like Reginal Mengi are considered as private owner who likely to decentralize. It is a modernized form.There are other form of decentralization including administrative decentralization, political and fiscal decentralization whereby they all aim at transferring power from one level of government to the other level.Decentralization relate to good local governance in different ways basing on their function since in order for decentralization to perform well their duties there is need for a local governance. So the following are the ways decentralization relates to good local government:Accountability and responsiveness; decentralization relate to good governance as it is enhance public accountability and responsiveness in government. Through the transfer of power the local level of government become close to the people and the government. Through the ability to hire and fire peoples or leaders tend to be more accountable. Also the government will easily respond to people needs as there is local government familiar to the problem in their society. The government become accountable to it is people, protection of resources and even making sure that there is peace in their area of jurisdiction by solving conflict and disputes which may arise and hence leading to a good local government.Rule of law; decentralization relate to good local government through emphasize on the use of the rule of law whereby no body above the law and all people are required to do as how the low is being directed no matter if it is a leader or a citizen. It is a necessary foundation on the effort to achieve the goal of good governance as it value justice. People are not being discriminated by the government and so people of different faith and background lives in peace and harmony in given area. They work together and considered to be equally important. For example in different place there can found Christian and muslims working together by following the law so the autonomous and the fair legal structure ensure protection of human rights, equality and inclusiveness which can lead to a good local governance. Service delivery; decentralization relate to good local government through service delivery as their main goal is to ensure people are able to get the required service in given area. Decentralization ensure the provision of needs of it is people through establishing a friendly government which is near to the people. A close government will likely known the needs of its people. So through the autonomous the local level ought to have it is easily to ensure the people needs are being met. Example through privatization people like Mengi contribute on service delivery like built of school, also we can see many ward school are being built up as a condition from the central government which is being implemented at the low level and hence through decentralization there is good local governance.Participation; decentralization relate to good local government as it ensure people participation in decision making at the local level. Participatory activity is important in ensuring good local government as it promote local accountability and transparency. Through decentralization people tend to be close to their government and have a say and making decision which is going to have some effect on their live, but this can be effective only if people are well informed about the programme and policies which are aimed to be made for example through the village assemble people are required to provides their views and decision about several issue which are important to them and this should ensure a good local governance.Effective and efficiency; decentralization relate to good local governance by promoting effective and efficiency of government policies and decision by giving interest at local level and a stronger sense of ownership over project and programes. This can lead to a good local government can feel the sense of ownership by managing different project introduced by local government and hence makes them more accountable. Example the issue of national identity card although it was diceded by the high authority but it gave local leader power to make follow up in the project such as providing forms and even education concerning the main issue and hence through decentralization there was presence of a good local governance.The other part of the question states, can we have decentralization without local governance? On my side I agree we can have decentralization without local governance by tracing back on 1972 in Tanzania. During 1972-1982 it was considered as a past independence phase of decentralization it was during this time when local government was abolished by the president and introduced decentralization through deconcentration. According to Sayer et al deconcentration refer to the process by which the agent of central government control are relocated and geographical dispersed. In short we can say the official are appointed from the central government was abolished and introduced decentralization the power was transferred from the central government. In decentralization era the system of deconcentralization of government introduced so as to replace comprehensive local government system which had existed for decades. District authority were abolished on 30 june 1972 while urban authority on june 1973.Decentralization can exist without local governance in different way such as the following;By giving people decision making powers on matter affecting their welfare and of local importance and this can be done by giving them the personnel and finance for their implementation, through deconcentrati

 

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