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Architecture #0


C. R. Ashbee (English architecture) C.R. Ashbee was born in London in 1863. A leading member of the Arts & Crafts movement, he received an architectural education at King's College. Ashbee apprenticed at Bodley & Garner, a firm that specialized in Gothic Revival architecture. His commitment to the Arts & Crafts movement occurred as a result of his work with this firm. In 1888 Ashbee founded the Guild and School of Handicraft in the East End of London. At this school students were trained in the Arts & Crafts tradition with particular emphasis on furniture design. Ashbee's work shows the spareness and restraint typical of the Arts & Crafts movement. In addition to his own designs, he is notable for drawing attention to the work of the Greene brothers and to Frank Lloyd Wright in America. He also wrote an essay Should We Stop Teaching Art? that drew attention to the changing nature of industrial patronage and client organization. Ashbee died near Sevenoaks, England in 1942. Walter Gropius Walter Gropius was born in Berlin in 1883. The son of an architect, he studied at the Technical Universities in Munich and Berlin. He joined the office of Peter Behrens in 1910 and three years later established a practice with Adolph Meyer. For his early commissions he borrowed from the Industrial Classicism introduced by Behrens. After serving in the war, Gropius became involved with several groups of radical artists that sprang up in Berlin in the winter of 1918. In March 1919 he was elected chairman of the Working Council for Art and a month later was appointed Director of the Bauhaus. As war became eminent, Gropius left the Bauhaus and resumed private practice in Berlin. Eventually, he was forced to leave Germany for the United States, where he became a professor at Harvard University. From 1938 to 1941, he worked on a series of houses with Marcel Breuer and in 1945 he founded "The Architect's Collaborative", a design team that embodied his belief in the value of teamwork. Gropius created innovative designs that borrowed materials and methods of construction from modern technology. This advocacy of industrialized building carried with it a belief in team work and an acceptance of standardization and prefabrication. Using technology as a basis, he transformed building into a science of precise mathematical calculations. An important theorist and teacher, Gropius introduced a screen wall system that utilized a structural steel frame to support the floors and which allowed the external glass walls to continue without interruption. Gropius died in Boston, Massachusetts in 1969. Gropius House at Lincoln 1937 Fagus Works at Germany 1911-1913 Bauhaus at Dessau, Germany 1925 Harvard Graduated Center 1950 Lithuanian architecture * I wanted to speak about this topic not in ordinary way. I want to compare modern architecture and ancient, old architecture new possibilities and unpleasent view of some objects. Of course if you would have a journey around the old town, antique buildings you would get a one type of impressions. Full of life modern town can be beautiful for one person and ugly for another. Everything become against in comparing. I will speak about Vilnius, the capital of our country. So, I can find a lot of contrasts in it. Old town was redecorated, after that the streets look like new, fresh, beautiful. Light yellow, orange, grey, green or violet – new colours of old Vilnius. It is very good that at old buildings we can see not only new colours or covers, not only new bricks but and antique stones, frescas or just an old shapes. It is important to protect and preserve antique. In Lithuania there are a lot of old castles, churches, cathedrals and I can tell you that for example Trakai is not worse than English lords castle and more our Trakai is richer. Mow when we are looking at it not all can believe that some years ago at that plase was only ruins of it. But now we have not only castle but and reachest exposition of antique things. We can speak a lot of cathedral square and church – bell witch is very old, about the church of St. Ann, old abbey and just about morrow old streets. But the most important object in Lithuania is a Gedimino tower witch is like a mark of Vilnius and visit card of Lithuania. It is situated on one of three hills in the center of Vilnius. American architecture Mario Botta Born in Mendrisio, Switzerland in 1943, Botta trained as a technical draftsman before he studied at the Liceo Artistico in Milan. From 1965 to 1969 he studied at the Istituto Universitario di Architecttura in Venice. During this same period he worked as an assistant to Le Corbusier and, then, to Louis I. Kahn. He opened his own practice in Lugano, Switzerland in 1970. Essentially Modernist in approach, Mario Botta has been strongly influenced by both Carlo Scarpa and Louis Kahn. Although his later works increasingly accept existing forms and styles as the starting point of design, Botta still adheres to a philosophy of historical determinism in which architecture acts as a mirror of its times. Botta's works characteristically show respect for topographical conditions and regional sensibilities and his designs generally emphasize craftsmanship and geometric order. Because he attempts to reconcile traditional architectural symbolism with the aesthetic rules of the Modern Movement, Botta is often identified with the Italian neo-rationalist group, the Tendenaz. Botta built exclusively in Switzerland during his early career, gaining international acclaim for such buildings as the Capuchin convent in Lugano, the Craft Centre in Balerna and the Administration Building for the Staatsbank in Fribourg. Since the second half of the 1970s, his houses have become more classical in plan and elevation, and in the 1980's he has secured international commissions such as the Museum of Modern Art in San Francisco, California Peter Eisenman (USA) Peter Eisenman was born in Newark, New Jersey in 1932. He studied at Cornell and Columbia Universities and then at Cambridge University in England. He taught at Cambridge, Princeton and the Cooper Union in New York, where he was founder and director of the Institute for Architecture and Urban Studies. Until recently, few of his designs had been built. As a result, most attention has focused on his architectural ideas which attempt to create contextually disconnected architecture. Eisenman has always sought somewhat obscure parallels between his architectural works and philosophical or literary theory. His earlier houses were "generated" from a transformation of forms related to the tenuous relationship of language to an underlying structure. Eisenman's latter works show a sympathy with the "anti-humanist" ideas of deconstructionism. Efficiency and proficiency ( my profession) * It is the second year of my studing on architecture. So, my work or profession is the architecture. It is qiute difficult to be the architect in our life. From one side we can say that the good architect is a man who can make smth new, beautiful, comfortable, which have a lot ideas of huose shapes and plans. Architect – discover. But from another side - a good architect can be a man just making houses or buildings for human needs, whose can be simply in forms and comfortables in shapes, without any innovation idea. For the all types of architects we can use words “efficien” and “profficient”. Efficiency in my comprehention it is a feature how the man can make his work. Everybody can learn how to make his work in a good way, it means to bacame an efficient and when you are the efficient you can be a professional. But from another side everybody can make smth, but not be a proffessional. After finishing our studies and getting degree we won’t became an indepent architects. We just just will be the efficiency. To become an indepent you must make a lot of projects and not one, but the biggest part of them must be bu


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